• Arthur Nuwagaba
  • Vincent Machuki
  • Joseph Owino
  • Caren Angima


There has been variation in the performance of state agencies in Uganda, with some displaying
excellent results in following their mandates, while others are performing dismally. Past
research has exhibited that Top Management Team (TMT) characteristics affect the
performance of organisations. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship
between TMT characteristics and the performance of Ugandan state agencies. The study was
anchored on the upper echelons theory. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional research
design. The target population of the study was the 201 state agencies in Uganda. The study
adopted at least three members of the TMT depending on the number of TMT members of the
160 selected state agencies in Uganda to gather the required information. Primary data was
gathered using a structured questionnaire that was administered online. Inferential statistics
employed regression analysis to test the hypothesis and draw conclusions. The results of the
study showed that there is a significant relationship between TMT characteristics and the
performance of Ugandan State Agencies (Adjusted R
= .241, F = 49.071, p<0.05. This study
concluded that behavioural characteristics contributed more to the performance of agencies
than psychological and demographic characteristics. The study recommends that the
recruitment process of TMTs should include demographic, behavioural, and psychological
characteristics as requirements. The management should focus on formulating their strategies of
maintaining or hiring knowledgeable employees who have good experience and are in the age
bracket of 40. Also, all state agencies in Uganda should think of policies on the capabilities of the
individuals of the TMT. The study recommends a gender balance in Ugandan State Agencies to
have gender inclusion in the government to have one-third gender representation.
Keywords: TMT characteristics, psychological characteristics, demographic characteristics,
behavioural characteristics attributes, organisational performance, efficiency, effectiveness, Uganda
state agencies